Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acutecomplications include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:
- Type 1 DM results from the pancreas’s failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”. The cause is unknown.
- Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as “non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”. The primary cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.
- Gestational diabetes, is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood-sugar levels.
Prevention and treatment involve a healthy diet, physical exercise, maintaining a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco. Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with the disease.
Type 1 DM must be managed with insulin injections.
Type 2 DM may be treated with medications with or without insulin. Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar. Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 DM.
Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.
- Genetic defects of β-cell function
- Maturity onset diabetes of the young
- Mitochondrial DNA mutations
- Genetic defects in insulin processing or insulin action
- Defects in proinsulin conversion
- Insulin gene mutations
- Insulin receptor mutations
- Exocrine pancreatic defects
- Chronic pancreatitis
- Pancreatic neoplasia
- Cystic fibrosis
- Fibrocalculous pancreatopathy
- Growth hormone excess (acromegaly)
- Cushing syndrome
- Cytomegalovirus infection
- Coxsackievirus B
- Thyroid hormone
- β-adrenergic agonists